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  • The cipher of Julius Caesar

    Julius Caesar had developed an encrypted code to send his confidential messages but also used other cryptographic techniques, so much so that Valerio Probo wrote an entire treatise on the subject, which unfortunately was lost. The cipher we know today is the one that Suetonius describes in his "Life of the Caesars" ...

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  • Lorica Romanorum

    During the battles the Greeks already used body protections but for the Romans, a warrior people, they were an indispensable tool in the military campaigns that led them to become the greatest war power of all time. The best known armours are those represented in the statues of the emperors, consuls and high officers which were parade protections but very different from those used in battle, fundamental above all for the legionaries and which were used by them since the times of the Republic. What their characteristics were can be easily deduced from the many representations in statues and bas-reliefs and also in the descriptions left by ancient historians, in addition to the discoveries that take place in various sites in the territories that were of the Roman Empire ...

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  • Villa of Quintilii

    The brothers Sextus Quintilius Condianus and Sextus Quintilius Valerius Maximus, belonging to an important senatorial family, very rich and highly educated, when they had to choose the area where to build their suburban villa, wanted the site at 5th mile of the Appian Way, to represent them and their origins. The Quintilii descended from the Quintii (Coarelli), an important family of Albalonga who became part of the Roman patrician class when their original city was destroyed; They then chose the area of the Fossae Cluilae where the three Curiatii, the hero brothers of Albalonga, had set up their camp for the duel with the Horatii, the champion brothers of Rome ...

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  • Tabernae Medicae in Urbe

    In the castra of the Roman legions engaged in wars campaigns were frequently identified the "valetudinarium", that was a buildings where the soldiers who had to be treated were housed,. These buildings existed not only at military camps but also in large farms, gyms, where they trained gladiators and athletes, so overall they were intended for the treatment of people who worked for the state.
    The opening of valetudinaria for the cives is due to the same doctors who worked in the valetudinaria militares. These doctors open their tabernae along the most attended streets and famous were the medicatrinae near the Temple of Aesculapius on the Tiber Island where, under the control of the medicus and his disciples, sick people belonging to all social classes were treated. Also Galen, a famous physician of the 2nd century BC. he had begun by working in the castra of the legions ...

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  • Municipalities and symbols of Romanita

    In the twelfth century, but already during the eleventh, the cities that were becoming municipalities felt the overwhelming need to legitimize their own institution and then went in search of their origins. But the origins must be noble and therefore the roots must go back to antiquity, and if Rome was founded by the heirs of Aeneas, then the cities of the Italian municipalities must originate from the same mythical history ...

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  • Insula Regio VII Via Lata

    In the III century B.C. Rome with 187,000 inhabitants was already the most populated city in the ancient world and would have remained so until 455 AD when it was sacked by the Vandals; at the time of Augustus the inhabitants were one million and reached the maximum expansion during the dynasty of the Antonines in the second century A.D. ...

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  • Lucretia and chastity

    The figure of Lucretia and the values of chastity that she represents by raising her to the Olympus of the mythical figures of Rome have triggered the irreverence of Latin writers and poets since the times of the late republic.
    Starting from the end of the first century. B.C. chastity took on different meanings; the Romans were no longer just warriors and their women no longer spun wool but bought precious silks from the east and adorned themselves with gold jewelry and precious stones ...

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  • April 21, 753 BC - The foundation

    The men who built their huts on the hills facing the small island on the Rumon River sought a chance for a better life. The boats that went up and down the river came from distant lands and asked to be able to supply themselves with fresh food to the shepherds and farmers who lived on the hills ...

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  • Priestess of Vesta

    The Roman people since archaic times held in great consideration all the forces with which nature imposed itself and which the gods taught them to use and first of all the fire which, if in its most violent and wild expression was represented by Volcan, as heat that favors life was represented by Vesta ...

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  • Domus Augusti

    Octavian chose to establish his residence as princeps inter pares on the Palatine Hill, not only because he had always lived on the hill and the aristocratic elite had always lived there, but also because there had been Romulus' house and there was the mundus, the well of foundation of Rome. After him many Roman emperors elected the Palatine as their dwelling and added other buildings to the Domus Augusti ...

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  • Callixtus, banker, convict and then Pope

    The Callixtus's life has many shadow areas; he was Pope at a time when the Church was already mauled by clashes of opposing factions so much that he died stoned to death in the bottom of a well and for this consecrated martyr of the Roman Church; his name remained linked to the hypogeum cemetery of the first Christians on the Via Appia, the Catacombs of Saint Callixtus, of which he was the first custodian ...

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  • The most popular arguments
  • The Hercules and Cacus myth

    The Hercules and Cacus myth expresses the progressive insertion of the Hellenistic culture on the primordial Italic cultures: Hercules is the ...

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  • Discovery Historia of Seneca in a papyrus of Herculaneum

    A new technology and the expertise and patience of Valeria Piano have given back to the world an important text by Anneo Seneca the Elder: "Historiae ab initio bellorum civileum", a historical work related to events from the period of civil wars to Emperor Tiberius, probably the last work written by the historian who died in 37 AD; until today expected the work lost instead it was hidden among the charred papyri in the library of the Pisons Villa in Herculaneum ...

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  • Julius Caesar’s funeral

    Caesar assassination’s was on 44 B.C. at Ides of March (March 15) in the Curia of Pompey in the Campus Martius, was killed with 23 stab wounds; on the eve ...

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  • Aurelia Cotta - The mother of Julius Caesar

    She was born in Rome on May 21, 120 BC, daughter of Lucius Aurelius Cotta who was consul in the year after hers birth; the mother was called Rutilia and even her family was of consular rank. The gens Aurelia had cognomina Cotta, Scaurus, and Orestes and, in the first century, a branch was called Fulvus, to this belonged Titus Aurelius Fulvus who became emperor under the name of Antoninus Pius ...

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  • Asaratos Oikos

    From Pliny the Elder we know the name of the artist to whom we owe the invention of two themes that were a model for the artists of Greek, and later Roman, mosaic art: Sosos of Pergamum lived in the second century. B.C. When Sosos was commissioned to create a decoration for the triclinium of the palace of Pergamum, he chose two themes that then became iconographic themes for the art of the ancient world: the doves drinking but , above all, the un-swept dining room or asaratos oikos ...

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  • Lucius Junius Brutus

    He was the founder of the Roman Republic and who led the revolt of the people and the Senate of Rome against the Tarquini and, after their expulsion ...

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  • Triclinium Leoninum

    At the end of the sixteenth century, when the Pope already lived in the Palaces on Vatican Hill, Pope Sixtus V wanted to demolish the previous residence, the Patriarchus Lateran, but he recommended to preserve the apse of the Triclinium for the important meaning that the wall mosaics had for the Roman Church ...

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  • Confarreatio, sacred marriage

    The rite of archaic marriage was called Confarreatio and dated back to the time of the monarchy; its name derived from the spelled focaccia (panis farreus) that the spouses parted to symbolize the future life together that they dedicated to Juppiter Farreus. In the Republican age it became the sacred marriage reserved only for the Flamines Maiores and the Pontifex Maximum and for the patricians who could have access to those offices ...

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  • Statilia Messalina

    She was the third wife of Nero: Statilia was born in Rome in 35 BC, she was descended from Tito Statilius Taurus who had built Statilius Theatre in ...

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  • The Battle of Cremera - 478 BC

    Livy reminds on July 18, 478 BC as the dies Cremerensis, the day of the Battle of Cremera; It was one of the bitterest defeats to Roma who had to lose all ...

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