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Rome: History and Culture

Go to : ANCIENT ROME | MEDIEVAL ROME | RENAISSANCE ROME | BAROQUE ROME | ROMANTIC ROME | MODERN ROME
ANCIENT ROME

Transparent dresses of Roman women

In ancient Rome, the dress indicated the condition of women and was considered tutela corporis. The dress of the Roman woman was composed of three parts: the tunica, a shirt worn on the skin, the stola a robe worn over the tunica, and the palla which was a square cloak worn over the stola and used by matron to cover her head when she was in public. The clothing was similar to the male one but already around the V-IV century. B.C. the stole began to differentiate itself and became ad talos demissa, that is, long to the feet with a broad edge at the end called instita ...

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The Prisons of Ancient Rome

In ancient Rome, the prison was not a penalty in itself, but served to guard the guilty of a crime awaiting lawsuit and sentenced to capital punishment or other corporal punishment according to the "ius talioni", the law of retaliation. In the Republican age the sentences were carried out immediately, then during the empire the sentences began to be less rigid and the more complicated procedures for which it happened that a lot of time passed between the sentence and the execution ...

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Spolia Opima, the highest honor of the conductors

The Senate of Rome recognized to great generals of Rome, including Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Scipio Africanus, Marius, Sulla, Pompey Magnus, Julius Caesar, Marcus Agrippa, Drusus senior the honor to celebrate the Triumph.
The Romans were vires of militaries, and the valiant conduct in the war involved moral and material recognition, but it was not enough to be courageous, but also to show that they were clever men, or that the military actions were conducted so excellent to obtainer the desired result: the victory ...

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Equestrian statues in Rome

The only great equestrian statue of Roman times that has come to this day is that of Marcus Aurelius; the splendid jewel of fusion art in Imperial Rome has been saved as it was believed that the character represented was Constantine because the statue was found near the Lateran where was the domus of Helena, mother of Constantine. But where Elena's domus stood there were Horti of Lucilla, the mother of Marcus Aurelius, and almost certainly the statue ornamented Lucilla's garden ...

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An indecent proposal

In Rome, the Egyptian cults had come especially with the slaves and the cult of the Goddess Isis had soon made many followers among the people, but these cults were strongly opposed by the patricians and an episode is emblematic of this attitude. During the reign of Tiberius there was a fact about the indecent proposal that the patrician Decius Mundo did to the matron Paolina, wife of Sentius Saturninus; the knight offered two hundred thousand drachmas to the matron to spend a night of love with her; but Paolina refused each proposal and then the knight decided to resort to a stratagem worthy to Jupiter ...

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Gifts and notes in ancient Rome

The emperor Vespasian at parties for Martiae Kalendae used to distribute to the women gifts accompanied by notes that were called apophoreta and probably the poet commissioned was Martial, Flavian cliens of long time , which has even left a collection with that name ...

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Magic formulas to heal

"Haut Haut istasis tarsis ardannabon": this was the magic formula that, according to Cato (De agricultura), did heal anybody from all evil and had to be sung every day after pater familias had performed the propitiatory ritual of healing, said luxum ut excantes ...

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The luxury and the Lex Oppia

The only reality in which the Romans considered lawful the female action was limited to the domus, but also in this space women were not supposed to get involved in politics; according to the mos maiorum the woman should be a wife and mother and was treated as an asset that the pater familias controlled and passed, by marriage, from father to husband and became part of his familia to whom also went her possessions ...

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The secret name of Roman women

In ancient Rome, a own woman's name had to remain secret, in fact, while men have their name, then the name of the gens and finally the cognomen, women are always written as the name of the gens to which they belong - that often induces errors in historical treatises - and are distinguished with maior or minor based on the seniority or by an ordinal number, secunda, tertia ...

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The colorful statues

The German archaeologist and erudite Johann Winckelmann in the second half of the eighteenth century claimed that the statues of the great Greek ...

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The Auriga

Even in the V century A.D. the auriga were heroes beloved by the people and by powerful of Rome so that the Roman emperor of the of the Orient did depict the charioteer Porfirio on the base of one columns of spine of ByzantiumCircus built by Constantine. The Auriga were the heroes of the Ludi Circensian even before they were introduced Ludi Gladiators. The Ludi Circensian were always the most beloved games in ancient Rome, The legend tells that they were instituted by Romulus to the Consualia feast but chariot races were very popular already among the Greeks and the Etruscans, from which the Romans borrowed, and they were related to Pelops myth and to chariot race organized by Oenomaus that saw him winner and new king of the land that from him took the name of Peloponnesus ...

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Ager nomentanum land of poets

The "villa" for the Romans, since ancient times was a house located outside the city walls and the word referred to both the residential building that ...

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Italics Agorà in Delos

The mercantile activity in ancient Rome was certainly favored by good navigability of the Tiber River and the favorable conformation of the river ...

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The initiation rites of Roman warriors

Mars is the ancient Italic god, represented - as told by Virgil - in the Archaic period with a headdress consisting of a helmet adorned by two pens ...

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Coins of ancient Rome

The first coinage of the Rome history, according to legend, was desired by King Numa Pompilius and the currency was called nummo by its name; in reality ...

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Venalicia, slaves markets

The wealth of Rome stemmed from the conquered territories resources and from the organization of their exploitation and, between all the resources that ...

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Pearls, empresses and the others

Pearls were much loved by the Romans and indeed one of the arcades that faced the central Via Sacra was called just Porticus Margaritarias and there ...

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The founding of Rome

The men who built their huts on the hills in front of the little island on the river, were looking for a possibility of better life. The boats that were going along ...

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The Roman saline

During the reign of Ancus Marcius part of the salary of the soldiers was given in salt from which the term wages derives. Plinius the Old man was asserting ...

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The heroic naked

The heroic naked style is born with the Greek art and is one of the motives of his originality, fundamental for the comprehension of his aesthetics as of that ...

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Julius Caesar’s funeral

Caesar assassination’s was on 44 B.C. at Ides of March (March 15) in the Curia of Pompey in the Campus Martius, was killed with 23 stab wounds; on the eve ...

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MEDIEVAL ROME

Rome Renaissance in 12th century

Pasquale II, pope from 1099 to 1118, faced his pontificate with a clear program that also included an urban revolution of Rome.In twenty years he tried to give a new face to Rome; centuries of raids and destruction to the detriment of monuments, fires and floods had transformed the capital of the Roman Empire into a sequence of semi-collapsed buildings. Historians believe that the Pope's commitment to the arrangement of entire areas of Rome was closely linked to the need to create liturgical paths to be proposed to the many pilgrims who each year came to Rome ...

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RENAISSANCE ROME

Rush of Berbers

In the nineteenth century the world capital of the Carnival was Rome; until the fifteenth century was the feast that the ordinary people made on the streets of Testaccio to celebrate the end of ...

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BAROQUE ROME
ROMANTIC ROME
MODERN ROME

Cultural circle of Queen Margaret

Rome was the capital of the Kingdom of Italy only from 1870 to 1946 and of the four kings and their queens only one was able to win the affection of the Italians, “Margaret”who was queen from January 1878 to July 1900 when the King Umberto was killed in Monza. Although Umberto the I was the second king of Italy, Margaret was the first Queen of Italy ...

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